Sunday, 30 November 2014

Sketchbooks and working process

                           Fig (1,2 Above and Below) cover from sketchbook, Hazel Terry

This is a little Red Riding Hood Sketchbook that I made in September. I made the cover from a mono-printed piece of plastic and then pulled the wolves from the darkness.

Unfortunately it is empty, I have a terrible confession, I don't use sketchbooks, I don't find that they help me in my creative process. When I have made/ used sketchbooks they are an entity in themselves and not a map or path in the development of finished pieces of work.
My thoughts come in sentences, poems and hastily scribbled sketches or doodles on scraps of paper, receipts, envelopes.
                                               Fig 3 ( Above) sketch for Folk Wolf, Hazel Terry

This 'litter' then percolates in my head for a while until I get the opportunity to commit it to paper. Then my ideas will evolve through several pale incarnations until I am happy.
Or sometimes it is as with a plastic bag monoprint, I make some sort of mess on the paper in print, bold paint splodge etc and pull (rescue) an image out of it.

                                      Fig 4 ( Above) sketch for Hobby Wolf, Hazel Terry

My brain is full of a litter of thoughts. My desk, bag, bedside table is a paper chase of litter that is my real sketchbook, it is not pretty, but it is how I stop thoughts, ideas and dreams disappearing.


Fig 1,2 Cover from sketchbook, Hazel Terry
Fig 3  Sketch for Folk Wolf, Hazel Terry
Fig 4 Sketch for Hobby Wolf, Hazel Terry

Saturday, 29 November 2014

Folk-Tale Complete

Fig 1 ( Above): Detail of Folk Tale, Hazel Terry
                           Fig 2 ( Above):  Folk Tale, Hazel Terry

Here is my completed A1 illustration with collage, pencil work and watercolour. I now want to make a hobby horse version . . . I like the way it looks like red Riding Hood is determinedly dragging the wolf.
I suppose by dressing the wolf in this way, in a folk costume I have made him benign, a figure of fun, he is not to be feared. 


Fig 1: Detail of Folk Tale, Hazel Terry, 2014
Fig 2: Folk Tale, Hazel Terry, 2014

Friday, 28 November 2014

A folk-tale

                            Fig 1 ( Above): Detail of Folk Tale, Hazel Terry

I woke up in the middle of the night and scribbled something in the dark hoping I would be able to make sense of it in the morning.
The thought was a combination of fabric scraps, folk costumes captured by Charles Fréger in 'Wilder Mann' and the wolf.

I am half way through the picture (detail above) that hopefully I can share completely tomorrow. On this piece I have applied 'scraps', printed pieces of paper that have fabric patterns printed on them in red. My idea behind this was that I wanted to give the wolf back some ancient folk identity. My inspiration was the strange and wonderful European folk costumes and traditions captured by Charles Fréger and my own experience of the Burryman and Morris Dancers.

                                              Fig 2 (Above): Schnappviecher, Tramin, Italy (detail) by Charles Fréger
                                              Fig 3 (Above): Macinula, Cisiec, Poland (detail) by Charles Fréger 
                                                 Fig 4 (Above): Burryman of South Queensferry, Scotland by Hazel Terry
 Fig 5 (Above): Morris Dancers in Kent by Susan Brisco


Fig 1: Detail of Folk Tale, Hazel Terry
Fig 2 (Above): Schnappviecher, Tramin, Italy (detail) by Charles Fréger
Fig 3 (Above): Macinula, Cisiec, Poland (detail) by Charles Fréger
Fig 4 (Above): Burryman of South Queensferry, Scotland by Hazel Terry
Fig 5 (Above): Morris Dancers in Kent by Susan Brisco

Thursday, 27 November 2014

Miguel Tanco, Caperucita Roja

Fig 1(above): Miguel Tanco, Caperucita Roja 2009

Miguel Tanco shares some of his thoughts, decisions and working methods used when approaching this classic tale for Edelvives in 2009. Caperucita Roja written by Pepe Maestro, illustrated by Miguel Tanco was part of an interesting collection, written and illustrated reinterpretations of children's classics.

"I guess the first thing we do when we were commissioned a classic is to see the different versions that have been made, especially the most original and daring. There will be hundreds, thousands of versions in different countries, including the vision of Gustave Doré, Kveta Pakovska, Nicoletta Ceccoli or Annalaura Cantone, and the very remarkable conceptual work with pictograms by Honegger-Lavater Warja."

The best way to start is that proposed by Maurice Sendak:
"An illustrator in my own mind — and this is not a truth of any kind — is someone who so falls in love with writing that he wishes he had written it, and the closest he can get to is illustrating it. And the next thing you learn, you have to find something unique in this book, which perhaps even the author was not entirely aware of. And that’s what you hold on to, and that’s what you add to the pictures: a whole 'Other Story' that you believe in, that you think is there." Maurice Sendak
Fig 2 (above): Miguel Tanco, Caperucita Roja 2009

"There's something that disturbed me in caperucita. I guess that by now everyone knows that riding hood is a history of oral tradition and then told-changed by Perrault and later Grimm. At first it was a story to warn teenagers of the trickery of men, hence the archetype of the black wolf to symbolize the adult male wild, evil in the world, perhaps a touch of racism the black man.
I explored the stereotypes of good and evil, and above all, the colors assigned to the characters. I heeded the advice of M. Sendak and decided from there that the wolf would not be black, it would be white and caperucita would perhaps African black carnation.
Talking to the publishing company the thinking was that it was best to develop the character as a gypsy. More close to us,  a part of our culture.
This opened a new door and gave the story a twist." 

Fig 3 (above): Miguel Tanco, Caperucita Roja 2009

"The characters would all be gypsies with their wagons, brightly colored traditional dresses and ornaments. It would also be a paradox that have no fixed home and are nomads, a roaming characteristic that is usually the wolfs.
Before I started the drawings, I looked for information on the Roma people, I read about racism and persecution, I explored their history.
As a ritual I keep a plastic folder which I label with the name of the book, to which I add any material remotely related, the history, photos, ads, pieces of colored paper, fabrics . . ."  Miguel Tanco
                         Fig 4 (above): Miguel Tanco, Caperucita Roja 2009


Fig 1,2,3,4:

When Did Little Red Riding Hood Get Her Red Hood? Annotated Bibliography

When Did Little Red Riding Hood
Get Her Red Hood?

  • Beckett, Sandra (2002) Recycling Red Riding Hood. New York, Routledge.
In this text, Sandra Beckett pays homage to the fluid nature of this omnipresent character in reference to Charles Perrault’s origination. Sandra discusses the malleable characteristics of Little Red Riding Hood and how authors and illustrators are able to confidently place her in urban or rural settings and change her age and social status, representing her as peasant or aristocrat.
Investigating contemporary children's literature from across the world she also examines the often neglected illustrators and how they have reinterpreted the story in contemporary media and often reveal a different story from the text reflecting many subtle aspects of the society at the time that they are made within the loose frame of the story.

  • Daniels, Morna ( 2006 ) Little Red Riding Hood. The British Library Journal. Article 5, P1-7

This essay plots the history of Charles Perrault's manuscript of 1695, which is well illustrated with rare illustrations from the 17th and 18th Centuries. The article discusses how most renditions of the story kept faithful to Perrault's until the first half of the Twentieth Century when children’s literature became over sentimental and the stories developed into tales with contrived happy endings.

  • Dezutter, Olivier, (2014) Little Red Riding Hood: a Story of Women at the Crossroads. Universite Catholique de Louvain

A study of the main female protagonists of Little Red Riding Hood through different renderings of the story throughout history and an interesting investigation into their initial appearance and role in illustrations throughout the century's.
This article also touches upon the inclusion of further characters and elements as more sections of the story became visual as illustrations, with illustrations becoming more frequent, as printing became cheaper and books became more widely available. It also discusses the demographics of the readership changing with the audience becoming children.

  • Dundes, Alan (1989) Little Red Riding Hood. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Alan Dundes casebook tries to unpick the oral and literary versions of the story to extract the symbolism and meaning drawing together the academic analysis from a wide range of international scholars and philosophers. This study endeavours to get a clear interpretation of the story through time and across the cultural boundaries.
The book highlights the amazing diversity of interpretation, which has led to the evolution of this story as a fable of humanity across the centuries

  • Hartigan Shea, Rachel. (2013) 'What Wide Origins You Have, Little Red Riding Hood!' A transcript of an interview between Rachael Hartican Shea and Jamshid Tehrani, National Geographic.

An insightful interview with Jamshim Tehrani, that gave me evidence that other scholars supported Jan Ziolkowski's claim that the verses from Egbert of Liege’s poem is a predecessor of Red Riding Hood. Every article and interview adds to my depth of understanding, just as I come to appreciate that every scrap of evidence printed, illustrated and oral adds to our understanding of the story, its evolution and interpretation.

  • Orenstein, Catherine (2002) Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked. New York: Basic Books.
Catherine Orenstien's work focuses particularly on the sexuality and morality of Red Riding Hood and how this is constantly re-written and adapted by cultures through time. This work contains many more cultural illustrations including film, advertisement and cartoons and shows that through the constant reinvention and reinterpretation of the story and its main protagonists the story remains relevant and acts as a barometer of morality, sexuality and female emancipation.
For my own study and practical interpretation of this folk tale, this study overemphasises the sexual politics and content. I prefer both the text and illustration to not have these elements so obvious, although I am aware of the connotations and content within interpretations of this tale.

This study offers an investigation into trends of authorship in terms of their gender, race and nationality. Showing the number of books published across the century’s including a basic history of the story and discussion about bibliometrics.
It has some interesting findings from this library, which would be even more interesting if applied beyond the collection of this children's library.
However it did make me consider now how readily available books have been for the last 40 years and how they have been increasing in production.
Though I fear we have crested the wave of publishing books made of paper and may now be pushed more to virtual publishing, something I already mourn.

  • Pullman Philip (2012) Grimm Tales for Young and Old. London. Penguin
A broader book of Grimm’s Fairy Tales but one where author Philip Pullman has reinterpreted and reworked Grimm’s tales for a contemporary audience, while dipping into the history of this genre and citing the importance for the reworking of these stories to continue.
It is a book that shows a genuine love of these stories and is homage to the history of this genre by a great contemporary storyteller.

  • Robson, David (2014) How The Colour Red Warps The Mind
I am really interested in the choice of head wear and its colour that Charles Perrault made in the first transcribed version of the Grandmother story. I have been researching its possible link with the French revolution and why so many revolutions are associated with the colour red.
I cannot believe that there has not been more academic interest in this particular detail of Red Riding Hood.
This article is a more general article about the colour red and it's psychological effects and implications. Which I think is vital to studying the main character of this folk story and must also play a part in making this story one of the most illustrated if not the most illustrated in history.

Realising that folk stories like little Red Riding Hood give us valuable insights into changing human values and societal constraints, anthropologist Tehrani Jamshid has formulated a way of tracing the oral footfall of folk tales and has applied his techniques to tracing the map (Parsimonious Trees) of origin for the story we now know as Little Red Riding Hood.
Tehrani's techniques are extremely complex, based on systems used by biologists, but his findings are fascinating as they plot how a story has travelled from people to people and land mass to land mass.
In tracing the variants across continents Tehrani has made a family tree for this ancient folk tale.
Over Time these folk Tales have been subtly changed and have evolved like a biological organism (…) By looking at how these folk tales have spread and changed it tells us something about human psychology and what sort of things we find memorable.” Dr Jamshid Tehrani.
Personally I question how much these techniques divining the origination of an oral tale are able to prove the map of anthropological, historical and geographical paths that this tale has journeyed, but beyond the amazing claims about these possibilities, this study does offer insights into storytelling and humanity.

  • Tippett, Krista, (2013) Transcript for Maria Tatar, The Great Cauldron of Story: Why Fairy Tales are for Adults Again. A transcript of an interview between Krista Tippett and Maria Tatar, On Being, American Public Media
Maria Tatar is an expert on fairy tales and legends and professor of German languages and literature at Harvard University, who fell in love with Grimm’s Fairy tales by being drawn into their illustrations.
The discussion highlights the different eras in terms of sound and how oral story telling was so important before we all became so accustomed to electronic devices radios, televisions, computers etc. It also highlights the purpose of storytelling in society for the teaching of moral instruction and social control.
The discussion touches on how these stories are the founding pillars of modern fables and tales like Harry Potter, The Hunger Games and Game of Thrones. It also focuses on how in their brutality these contemporary tales are returning to the Pre-Victorian dark savagery of the original oral fairy tales.

  • Ziolkowski, Jan (1992) Fairy Tale from before Fairy Tales; Egbert of Liège's “De puella a lupellis seruata” and the Medieval Background of “Little Red Riding Hood”. Medieval Academy of America, Speculum,Vol. 67, No. 3, P 549-575.
This text discusses the problems of tracing the origins of this story and the arguments between anthropological and literary scholars. The segregation between to two is generally defined by the difference between written forms and oral forms of the tale, and the importance attributed to both.
The written / printed version was of course only available, until the last century, to the elite educated classes and the oral by the illiterate under classes. This differentiation would result in distinctive variations of the story, its meaning and purpose.
The article also explores at length the arrival of the colour 'red' in Red Riding Hood and discusses this in terms of religion, biology (menstruation, blood and maturity) and its apotropaic qualities.

  • Zipes, Jack (2013) The Golden Age of Folk and Fairy Tales: From the Brothers Grimm to Andrew Lang. Indianapolis: Hackett.
This is a beautifully illustrated book, with easily comparable sections on related stories, where Zipes studies the particular time period of 1812-1912. In the section ‘Dangerous Wolves and Naïve Girls’ he offers a brief history of the genre and discusses the general characteristics that the story has it terms of rape, paedophilia and manners. One of the stories included by Jean-François Bladé of 1886 has the child is a boy and the wolf a priest. I find every story has its subtle differences and all of these help to feed my imagination with more possibilities for illustration and my sense of wonder at the ceaseless reinterpretation.

  • Zipes, Jack (1993) The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood. New York: Routledge.
Jack Zipes provides a chronological study of the literary narrative of Little Red Riding Hood complete with some historic printed illustrations from his own important personal collection.
It is a comprehensive study of the subject in terms of social history that amplifies the meaning and context of the iconography of this story.
The book strives to link the evolution of this story in terms of its role in society.
In studying the subtle mutations of the tale over time the book captures societies shifting attitudes to power, sexuality and gender.
This is a story that everyone knows but this book reveals the subtle mutation of the tale even since it appeared in print, leaving us to ponder the Chinese whispers of its oral evolution through time and across continents.

Wednesday, 26 November 2014

Tim Paul

                 Fig 1 (above): Tim Paul Little Red Riding Hood
"Another version of Little Red Riding Hood. The foliage took a while because I wanted a lot of variety, but to feel harmonious at the same time.
Red was the hardest. I wanted more than a little girl, but I didn't want her to be mature. Just on the edge of becoming a woman.
I had several ideas on how to approach the wolf, but once I sketched in him in the final pose, I thought, yes, that’s it. He was the quickest part to do. Probably because he needed the least details."
Tim Paul 
Tim Paul's work has a very 1950's graphic, animation style


Fig 1: Tim Paul Little Red Riding Hood

Tuesday, 25 November 2014

"Chaperon Rouge" by Emeline Bafoin, Eric Le Dieu de Ville, Tristan Michel and Vincent Techer Supinfocom - France - 2006

   Fig 1,2,3,4 (above) Stills from Chaperon Rouge by Emeline Bafoin, Eric Le Dieu de Ville, Tristan Michel 
                and Vincent Techer.

"Chaperon Rouge" a short 3D animated film created by Emeline Bafoin, Eric Le Dieu de Ville and Tristan Michel and Vincent Techer when they were students at Supinfocom, France, 2006


Fig 1,2,3,4 Stills from Chaperon Rouge by Emeline Bafoin, Eric Le Dieu de Ville, Tristan Michel 
                and Vincent Techer.

Monday, 24 November 2014

Mariana Ruiz Johnson

   Fig 1 (above): Mariana Ruiz Johnson, Red Riding Hood.
"A 'Red Riding Hood' illustration created in a workshop workshop by Gianni de Conno, Milan, Italy. In the 5-day workshop that I attended with my friends and colleagues Sabina Vanins and Keki, Gianni suggested that we take and reinterpret the classic tale, with particular emphasis on the design of the characters."      Mariana Ruiz Johnson

Fig 1 (above): Mariana Ruiz Johnson, Red Riding Hood. 

Sunday, 23 November 2014

Anne Siems

          Fig 1 (above) Winter Wolf Girl, Anne Siems. 2012
Fig 2 (above) Wolf Girl II 2012 Anne Siems
         Fig 3 (above) Wolf Girl Drawing 2012 Anne Siems
   Fig 4 (above) Wolf Girl by Anne Siems 2012
                  Fig 5 (above) Coyote with Tassels, Anne Siems 2012
                    Fig 6 (above) Young Wolf Girl 2012 Anne Siems
"My wolf is not directly linked to the story of Red Riding Hood, but connects to the idea of young girls coming of age and obtaining a totem animal as a spirit guide.     I imagine the original story of Little red riding Hood is probably linked to ancient stories of wolf spirits and as is the case in many 'primitive' societies, predator animals were revered for the prowess, intelligence and for keeping a balance in the world of prey and predator. Native people in America rarely hunted their predators, but only game. Once the Brother's Grimm got to the story it had altered and changed by a society who had moved to farming and who had almost exterminated the wolf in Europe -certainly in Germany,where we no longer have wolves or bears. I am German, but have lived in the US for 15 years. I grew up with the fairy tales of the Brothers' Grimm and am now immersed in shamanic studies.Anne Siems

Fig 1  Winter Wolf Girl, Anne Siems. 2012
Fig 2  Wolf Girl II  Anne Siems 2012
Fig 3 : Wolf Girl Drawing Anne Siems 2012
Fig 4  Wolf Girl by Anne Siems 2012
Fig 5  Coyote with Tassels, Anne Siems 2012
Fig 6 Young Wolf Girl, Anne Siems 2012

Saturday, 22 November 2014

Darya Skulskaya

      Fig 1: Little Red Riding Hood Darya Skulskaya 2014

Darya Skulskaya is a young Ukranian graphic designer and illustrator who works predominantly in collage. In this clever map picture, her wolf is the forest with grandma's house already in its stomach and it's breath on little red riding hood's house.


Fig 1: Little Red Riding Hood Darya Skulskaya 

Friday, 21 November 2014

Blanca Helga

                   Fig 1(above): Little Red Riding Hood by Blanca Helga 
"Little Red Riding Hood" was one of my favourite classic tales when I was a child.  I remember asking my mother or my sister to tell me the story, again and again, and imagining it vividly and with great pleasure.I also remember drawing scenes of it, and visualizing the story.Now, working as illustrator I enjoy creating different characters in cardboard and collage, I call them "Paper Friends". It was impossible to not include one cardboard version of "Little Red Riding Hood" just for me to enjoy." Blanca Helga
Blanca Helga is an illustrator from Madrid who works as an illustrator, film maker and creative.


Fig 1: Little Red Riding Hood by Blanca Helga.

When Did Little Red Riding Hood Get Her Red Hood? Crirical Analysis

When Did Little Red Riding Hood
Get Her Red Hood?

Critical Analysis

Ziolkowski, Jan (1992), Fairy Tale from before Fairy Tales; Egbert of Liège's “De puella a lupellis seruata” and the Medieval Background of “Little Red Riding Hood”. Medieval Academy of America, Speculum,Vol. 67, No. 3, P 549-575.

                                             Fig 1. Above: Artist Unknown, Tales of Mother Goose 1695

In my academic enquiry, I shall be looking at the arrival of Little Red Riding Hood in the original printed text by Charles Perrault. For my analysis I am using Jan Ziolkowski's 1992 article the 'Fairy Tale from before Fairy Tales'.

                                     Fig 2. Above: Antoine Clouzier. 'Red Gravure', etching from Charles Perrault's 
                                                 Histoires ou contes du temps passé, avec des moralités: 1697 Contes de ma mère l'Oye.

Since embarking on my academic research into Red Riding Hood, I have been surprised by just how ancient this tale could be and how it traversed continents.
I also find it incredible how the story is able to evolve and mirror the society that it is current to, whilst still maintaining its integrity. This quality must have aided the story’s longevity, making it as relevant and popular today as it always was.

               Fig 3. Matthew Twombly info-graphics from National Geographic Article, 
               'What Wide Origins You Have, Little Red Riding Hood!'

Despite many characteristics and details subtly evolving and changing, one main constant is the clothing of the child in the story, that has provided the literary tale with its name since 1697. Fairy tales are by nature an oral storytelling form and this story, prior to Perrault's printed version, was generally known as the 'False Grandmother' or 'The Story of the Grandmother'. So it is perplexing as to where this garment came from and how the girl came to take the lead role in the title.

                          Fig 4: Illustration from 'The History of Little Red Riding Hood in Verse', (London, 1808). BL, 12804.a.37.

Interestingly, if you were to remove the little red riding hood out of 'Red Riding Hood' then you lose 64% of the variant tales. Therefore, just under two thirds of the known variations of this story feature this colour and a head covering garment, so it is a very significant characteristic.

Most literary academics state that 'Red Riding Hoods' red hat/ cloak was given to her in Charles Perrault's 'Le Petit Chaperon Rouge', which was published under his ten year old son’s name, P. D'Armancour, in a book called 'Histoires ou Contes du Temps Passe', 1697.

Jeanne Morgan states, “Le Petit Chaperon Rouge has no known sources or parallels whatsoever. We have only Perrault's word for it that they are indeed 'Contes du temps passe,' in the preface's allusion to stories 'que nos aieux ont inventes.” Jeanne Morgan. 1985. P103.(1)

However, Jan Ziolkowski, a professor of Medieval Latin at Harvard University with a particular interest in folk tales, challenges this assumption. His study cites extracts of the epic poem “De puella a lupellis seruata” by Egbert of Liège printed in 1024 as being an example of a medieval Red Riding Hood and uses this poem to illustrate why he believes ancient printed material should not be ignored by folklore students and academics.

Egbert was a teacher at the cathedral school of Liège who used folklore and oral storytelling, intertwining it with his religious, moral teachings to exploit its familiarity and accessibility to his students.

           (2) Above: Egbert of Liège's verse in Latin.

         (3) Above: Jan Ziolkowski's translation of Egbert of Liège's verse in Latin text.

Egbert's transcribed tale is not the same as Perrault's tale, but as this extract from Egbert's poem illustrates, there is a direct correlation with many aspects of 'Red Riding Hood'. This surely demonstrates how ancient printed material should not be dismissed as irrelevant, in plotting the history of this story.
However as Jan Ziolowski points out, many scholars have dismissed these verses as not being a medieval precursor of 'Red Riding Hood'.
Alan Dundes, who was one of the most prominent American folklorists, dismissed any printed material from before Perrault as being irrelevant.

“It is well to keep in mind that fairy tales are first and foremost an oral form. So from that point of view, any written version is suspect” Alan Dundes.1989 P196 (5)

Marianne Rumpf disregards Egbert's poem because it lacks two key events characteristic of the tale; the wolf devouring the girl and the rescue from the wolf.
It seems strange to dismiss such an early version on the basis of what it doesn't include, rather than the intermutual elements that it contains; the girl, the forest, the wolf and the red riding hood, as well as having the underlying message of caution. However, Marianne's opinion is countered by this statement by Alan Dundes:

Variation is a key concept in folkloristics. It is variation that in part distinguishes folklore from so-called 'high-culture' and 'mass culture'. (… ) folklore, with its characteristics of multiple existence and variation, is ever in a state of flux. There is no one single text in folklore; there are only texts. Folklore once recorded from oral tradition does not cease to be, but rather continues on its often merry way from raconteur to raconteur, from generation to generation.” Alan Dundes 1989. P 193 (6)

Jan Ziolkowski's paper discusses the failings of academic folklorists in that their methodology is exclusionary, adhering to dominance of either the oral or literary forms. This leads to shortfalls in the comprehensiveness of their analysis.

“ Despite a century of struggles towards a scientific narratology of folktales, folktale analysts have not attained a universally applicable diagnostics for fixing the absolute minimum of constituents that endue a story of a given type with its distinctive imprint. The complex of features that lends a story its essence will vary from tale to tale, cultural milieu to cultural milieu. This variability does not render the process of analysis futile but it does recommend that analysts be flexible.” Jan Ziolkowski. 1992. P564 (7)

In the ever changing oratory of folklore, literary adaptations have simply anchored a version to a particular era, providing us with a tiny finger print in time. They do not give us the whole picture; the subtle nuances of culture and language, but at least provide us with a piece of this giant, scattered jigsaw puzzle of oral history.

“In many ways the problem of reconstructing folklore tradition is very similar to the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary relationship of species. We have little evidence about the evolution of species because the fossil record is so patchy. Similarly, folktales are only very occasionally written down. We need to use some kind of method for reconstructing that history in the absence of physical evidence. (…) My analysis confirmed that the 11th-century poem is indeed an early ancestor of the modern fairy tale. Jamshid Tehrani, 2013 (8)

What is fascinating is that the 'fossils' are there, lining up to be included in the family tree. But we need flexible inclusive analysis of all sources not a hierarchy, so that important evidence is not dismissed or overlooked.



Fig 1. Artist unknown, Tales of Mother Goose, 1695,

Fig 2. Antoine Clouzier. Illustrative etching in Charles Perrault Le Petit Chaperon Rouge Paris 1697.

Fig 3. Hartigan Shea, Rachel. (2013) 'What Wide Origins You Have, Little Red Riding Hood!', A transcript of an interview between Rachael Shae Hartican and Jamshi Tehrani. National Geographic.

Fig 4. The History of Little Red Riding Hood in Verse (London, 1808). BL, 12804.a.37.


  1. Morgan, Jean. Perrault's Morals for Moderns, American University Series II, Romance Languages and Literatures 28 P103, New York, 1985
  1. Fecunda ratis, ed. Voigt, p.1.
  1. Fecunda ratis, ed. Voigt, p.1. (Translated by Jan. M. Ziolkowski)
  1. Foucault, The civilizing Process: The History of Manners, 1, trans. Edmund Jephcott, (New York) 1978. P.36
  1. Dundes, Alan (1989) Little Red Riding Hood. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. P196
  1. Dundes, Alan (1989) Little Red Riding Hood. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. P193
  1. Ziolkowski, Jan (1992) Fairy Tale from before Fairy Tales; Egbert of Liège's “De puella a lupellis seruata” and the Medieval Background of “Little Red Riding Hood”. Medieval Academy of America, Speculum,Vol. 67, No. 3. P564
  1. Hartigan Shea, Rachel. (2013) 'What Wide Origins You Have, Little Red Riding Hood!', A transcript of an interview between Rachael Shae Hartican and Jamshi Tehrani. National Geographic.

Thursday, 20 November 2014

Perdro Perles

                        Fig 1 (above): Little Red Riding Hood by Perdro Perles 
     Fig 2 (above) Fig3 (below): Little Red Riding Hood by Perdro Perles 

Spanish Illustrator Pedro Perles's appears to amalgamate many folk tales in his version of Little Red Riding Hood has an almost 'Cinderella' wolf foot in a tiny red shoe and a tiny 'Thumbelina' red riding hood peeping from the wolves ear.


Fig1,2,3: Little Red Riding Hood by Perdro Perles 

Wednesday, 19 November 2014

Nelleke Verhoeff I

Today we have two interpretations of Red Riding Hood by Nelleke Verhoeff a Dutch artist whose studio name is Red Cheeks Factory.
With the red in her studio name and often her palette, her work is perfectly suited to the story of Red Riding Hood.

                            Fig 1 (above): Face 75 Red Riding Hood by Nelleke Verhoeff
 "This (fig 1) is one of my favourite youth-photos: me as a very shy infant with big glasses dressed up as little red riding hood to walk in a dressed-up parade. I first made a rough sketch with a big marker, I scanned this sketch and painted the rest in photoshop." Nelleke Verhoeff
   Fig 2 (above): Little Red Riding Hood and the Seven Wolves by Nelleke Verhoeff
This (Fig 2) is 'Little Red Riding Hood and the seven wolves' it is a mixture of two fairy tales: The wolf and the seven goats and little Red Riding HoodThe technique is digital collage including scanned in hand painted textures."     Nelleke Verhoeff


Fig 1: 'Face 75' Red Riding Hood by Nelleke Verhoeff.
Fig 2: Little Red Riding Hood and the Seven Wolves by Nelleke Verhoeff.

Tuesday, 18 November 2014

Jacqueline Molnár

 Fig 1,2,3,4,5 (above) Piroska és a Farkas, Jacqueline Molnár

There is no great sense of fear or danger in Jacqueline Molnár's 'Piroska és a farkas'. Her illustrations for this book are collages of monoprinted papers, with drawn and painted details that are warm and friendly. I like Jacqueline's subtle changes to the wolf with its adopted disguise of lacey dress, mismatched footwear and gloves.


Fig 1,2,3,4,5 Piroska és a Farkas, Jacqueline Molnár

Monday, 17 November 2014

Goatfish gives the wolf's wardrobe a makeover

                   Fig 1(above): The wolf's New Nighties! by Goatfish

Ipad illustrations by Goatfish who wanted to modernise the wolves wardrobe, being tired of seeing him in grandmothers 1697 vintage sleepwear.


Fig1:  The wolf's New Nighties! by Goatfish                         

Sunday, 16 November 2014

The Path of Needles or Pins?

It is difficult to find when and where the paths of needle and pins appeared in the fairytale, though it is in a version of 'The Grandmother' collected by folklorist Achille Millien (1838-1927) in the French province of Nivernais, about 1870.
In Paul Delarue's recounting of these versions, the girl meets the wolf or, in this case, a "bzou" (werewolf) in the woods, who asks her:

   Fig 1 (above) Needle detail of 'The Path of Needles or Pins' by Hazel Terry
"What road are you taking, the Needles Road or the Pins Road?""The Needles Road," said the little girl."Well I shall take the Pins Road."
The little girl enjoyed herself picking up needles. Meanwhile the bzou (werewolf) arrived at her Grandmother's....
                                    Fig 1 (above) Pin detail of 'The Path of Needles or Pins' by Hazel Terry
"There are some variations in the names of the roads.... These absurd roads, which have surprised adults and provoked scholars, delight children, who find their existence in fairyland quite natural." Paul Delarue

The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales, Jack Zipes says: 

"The wolf asks her if she is taking the path of pins or needles. She indicates that she is on her way to becoming a seamstress by taking the path of needles."

In Little Red Riding Hood UncloakedCatherine Orenstein says:
 "She must chose a path of pins or needles -- the tools and symbols that appear in female initiation rites around the world, and particularly in France, where sending a young girl to apprentice with the seamstress for a year or so was, according to one scholar, a bit like sending her to finishing school, and carried a sense of sexual maturation."
It is said to be a mark of maturity and responsibility to take the path of needles. Pins were used by children as a quick unskilled 'makegood' rather than taking the time to properly repair clothing by sewing. So the choice of paths is the choice between childhood innocence and maturity. 

   Fig 1 (above) 'The Path of Needles or Pins' by Hazel Terry

In my illustration I have exchanged their choice of paths, I wanted the Red Riding Hood to be a child and the wolf to be the mature character, trickster and seducer, I also included threads in the needles, I thought it made them ruder.


Fig 1,2 Details of The Path of Needles or Pins, Hazel Terry
Fig 3 The Path of Needles or Pins, Hazel Terry
Orenstein C, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, Basic Books, New York, 2002. 
Zipes J, The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005.